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Understanding the Role of Competition Bureau Canada in Regulating AI Markets

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Data and AI Governance Consultant | INQ Consulting

In March 2024, the Competition Bureau Canada published its “Artificial intelligence and competition” discussion paper outlining the impact artificial intelligence (AI) has or may in the future have on market competition and the role the Bureau will play in this landscape. This blog post summarizes the most salient points businesses should be aware of adding practical tips in the relevant areas.

The rapid evolution of AI technologies poses unique challenges and opportunities within digital markets and the Burau plays a pivotal role in overseeing these markets, ensuring fair competition and addressing potential monopolistic practices that could harm consumers and stifle innovation. For businesses navigating the complexities of AI integration, understanding the Bureau’s approach to AI and competition is important in their day-to-day operations as well as when contemplating and engaging in mergers.

AI and Market Dynamics

AI technologies significantly influence market dynamics by heightening or lowering barriers to entry and the potential for monopolistic practices. The Competition Bureau actively investigates scenarios where market power abuses or mergers might substantially lessen competition. AI markets, characterized by rapid advancements and high data dependency, present unique challenges in this regard.

Barriers to Entry

Entering AI development markets heavily depends on access to data and compute resources. While public data is widely used and accessible, proprietary data may play crucial role in the near future as publicly available training data may soon be exhausted in terms of further enhancing AI models. This shift signifies that new firms might face significant hurdles if proprietary data becomes essential for competitive participation. They may be less able to rely on internally collected data, compared to Big Data players. Moreover, the high concentration in cloud compute and AI chip markets presents additional entry barriers, often requiring new entrants to rely on large, established technology providers.

Tip for New Businesses:

To navigate the barriers to entry in AI markets effectively, businesses should focus on forming strategic partnerships with data providers and explore options for accessing or purchasing proprietary data. Additionally, companies should consider investing in scalable cloud services and AI processing capabilities to ensure they can compete effectively against larger, established players.

Tip for Established Businesses:

To ensure fair competition and avoid regulatory scrutiny, established firms should refrain from engaging in practices that could unfairly restrict market entry for new competitors. This includes avoiding exclusive agreements that limit access to crucial data and compute resources, and ensuring that pricing strategies for AI chips and cloud services are transparent and fair, without leveraging dominant market positions to disadvantage smaller competitors.

Product Differentiation and Market Power

AI enables firms to differentiate their products, potentially reducing direct competition and fostering market power. This differentiation can be beneficial, as it may reduce the likelihood of coordinated conduct among firms. However, market power achieved through product differentiation might not be sustainable as new innovations emerge.

Tip for New Businesses:

To effectively leverage product differentiation in AI, new entrants should focus on innovation and unique applications of AI technology. It's crucial to continuously evolve product offerings and stay ahead of market trends, as differentiation alone may not guarantee long-term market power due to the rapid pace of technological change.

Tip for Established Businesses:

Established firms should use product differentiation responsibly to maintain competitive advantage without stifling competition. Avoid practices that could be seen as exploiting market power to hinder competitors, such as tying or bundling AI products in ways that restrict market entry or disadvantage other players. Ensuring fair play will help sustain a healthy competitive environment conducive to ongoing innovation.

Economies of Scope and Scale

AI development demands substantial upfront investments, creating economies of scale that often benefit large technology firms with extensive resources. These firms may also exploit economies of scope. Economies of scope refer to the cost advantages that organizations achieve due to the versatility and broad applicability of AI technologies across a variety of different products and markets. This dynamic, facilitated particularly by general purpose AI, may potentially leading to market concentration.

Tip for New Businesses:

New entrants should strategize to mitigate the high upfront costs associated with AI development by exploring collaborative ventures and seeking funding opportunities. While leveraging economies of scale might be challenging initially, focusing on niche markets where they can apply AI efficiently might provide a strategic foothold.

Tip for Established Businesses:

Large firms should be mindful of the competitive landscape and ensure that their use of economies of scope does not lead to anti-competitive behaviors. While it is advantageous to apply AI across various products and markets, these firms should avoid practices that could lead to undue market concentration or limit the competitive opportunities for smaller players. Maintaining a fair competitive environment encourages innovation and market health.

Network Effects and Competitive Conduct

AI markets are prone to network effects where the value of a technology grows with its user base and application range. Such effects can enhance the market position of firms with widespread technology deployment but may also facilitate anti-competitive practices like predatory pricing or exclusionary tactics.

Tip for New Businesses:

New entrants in AI markets should be aware of the importance of building a robust user base to leverage network effects positively. Strategies such as early user engagement, offering initial value propositions, and iterative feedback loops can help build momentum and counterbalance the dominance of larger players.


Tip for Established Businesses:

Established firms should exercise caution to ensure that their use of network effects does not cross into anti-competitive practices. It's important to avoid strategies like predatory pricing or creating barriers that exclude competitors from the market

AI and Competitive Concerns

The Competition Bureau is particularly vigilant about mergers and acquisitions in the AI sector. These transactions are scrutinized to determine their impact on market power and competitive dynamics. Horizontal mergers combine firms in the same market, potentially consolidating market power, while vertical and conglomerate mergers might control more of the supply chain or extend market dominance across multiple markets.

Tip for Businesses Considering Mergers or Acquisitions:

When planning mergers or acquisitions, it is crucial for companies to conduct thorough due diligence to understand the potential impact on market power and competition. Engage transparently with regulatory bodies like the Competition Bureau to ensure compliance. Avoid consolidations that could lead to excessive market control or reduce competitive dynamics, particularly in the same or closely linked markets.

Moreover, AI’s role in facilitating potentially illegal cartel behaviors, such as price-fixing or market allocation, is a growing concern. The automated nature of AI could (un)intentionally foster tacit collusion, making it essential for regulatory bodies to monitor these developments closely. It’s also key for businesses to ensure they remain on the right side of the law, especially if they employ AI as automatic decision-makers.

Tip for Businesses Employing AI in Decision-Making:

Firms using AI for automatic decision-making, particularly in sensitive areas like pricing, must implement robust oversight and auditing mechanisms to prevent unintended anti-competitive behaviors. Ensure that AI systems do not facilitate illegal practices such as price-fixing or market allocation. Regular reviews and updates of AI models in line with ethical guidelines and competition law are essential to maintain compliance and promote fair business practices.

AI and Consumer Protection

As AI technologies become more embedded in consumer products, the Competition Bureau also focuses on preventing deceptive marketing practices. It is imperative that consumers receive accurate and truthful information about AI capabilities and limitations to make informed decisions. Be careful not to make unsupported claims about whether AI is part of a product offering, exaggerating the ability of your AI product or it’s ability to do better than a non-AI product, or whether you conducted a risk analysis.

How INQ can Help

For businesses leveraging AI technologies, navigating the regulatory landscapes is as crucial as technological innovation. INQ Consulting specializes in data protection and AI governance, providing expert guidance to ensure your AI strategies not only innovate but also comply with evolving regulations like those enforced by the Competition Bureau Canada. Partner with INQ Consulting to safeguard your business against potential legal and competitive risks in the AI landscape.

Not sure where to get started? INQ’s portfolio of AI services is customized to fit your specific needs and get you AI-ready. To learn more, visit our website at or contact us at To keep up with the latest in AI news, subscribe to the Think INQ newsletter.

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